The muscles of facial expression are located in the subcutaneous tissue , originating from bone or fascia, and inserting onto the skin. By contracting, the muscles pull on the skin and exert their effects. They are the only group of muscles that insert into skin. These muscles have a common embryonic origin — the 2nd pharyngeal arch.
Surface Anatomy, 4 Edition
The facial landmarks can be visualized in Figure 2. These landmarks also form a benchmark for determining normal facial anatomy when performing an extraoral examination on a patient. You did not finish creating your certificate. Failure to complete ALL the steps will result in a loss of this test score, and you will not receive credit for this course. Save your progress. Previous Next Facial Landmarks. Figure 2. Facial Landmarks.
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Sign up. The facial surface of the maxilla Facies facialis is external and irregularly convex. Its caudal limit is marked by two prominences:. Descending from the zygomatic bone, the facial crest Crista facialis , a line of muscular insertion that varies much according to the species, ends usually on the facial tubercle Tuber faciale. Rostrally to the facial tubercle, The infra-orbital foramen Foramen infraorbitale ends the infra-orbital canal Canalis infraorbitalis which has crossed the maxilla from the caudal maxillary foramen Foramen maxillare ; this canal delegates an accessory branch in the thickness of the bone until the incisive region: the maxilloincisive canal Canalis maxilloincisivus. In front of the infra-orbital foramen, the -barely visible in Equidae, but vast and deep in Porcines- canine fossa Fossa canina extends. In the species in which the canine tooth is well developed, this fossa is limited to the very rostral part, by the canine bump , a relief that corresponds to the alveola of this tooth.
Face Figs 2. Facial bones Figs. Facial muscles Fig. Lateral aspect of the head Figs 2. Surgical incisions of the skull and parotid gland Fig. Temporomandibular joint Fig. Eye Figs 2.